Soil Acidification: Background
Soil pH test results reveal that Montana's agricultural fields are
Figure 1. Montana Counties in which fields iwth soil pH < 5.5 have been found.
becoming more acidic; and the effects are not confined to any single county but occur in many agricultural regions of the state, including those which are traditionally known to have high pH soils (Figure 1).
The agronomic concerns of low soil pH are multiple:
- aluminum and manganese toxicity
- nutrient deficiency
- poor N fixation in legumes
- increased fungal disease
- changes in herbicide effectiveness and persistence
These all contribute to decreases yields or at worst, crop failure (Figure 2).
There are soils which naturally have low soil pH. These include soils with
Figure 2. A field in Choteau county, MT, seeded to durum wheat and experiencing aluminum toxicity symptoms (soil pH = 4.5). May 18, 2016. Image courtesy R. Engel.
low buffering capacity due to low soil organic matter, coarse texture, or granitic rather than calcareous parent material. Soils historically supporting forest rather than grassland ecosystems tend to have lower pH. The agronomic development of soil acidiity problems in Montana can be traced to:
- increase in ammonium-based N fertilizer use above crop needs (Figure 3)
- leaching loss of nitrate (NO3-)
- crop residue removal
- adoption of direct seeding, no-till systems
- fallow rather than annual cropped systems
Figure 3. Urea subsurface band at 6" depth at greater than the suggested 40 lb N/acre reduced soil pH down to 12" depth (Bouman et al., 1995, SK).
as in other items listed on our Resources page.
Bouman, O.T., D. Curtin, C.A. Campbell, V.O. Biederbeck, and H. Ukrainetz. 1995. Soil acidification from long-term use of anhydrous ammonia and urea. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59:1488-1494. doi:10.2136/sssaj1995.03615995005900050039x